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Blackline Master provide materials for teaching Key Word Concepts, Concept Mastery Fluency Drills, and for assessing phonics skills and word identifications. It includes a Key Word Concept Sheet that shows a word that exemplifies a phonogram or concept, and its picture. It also contains Key Word Cards that are smaller versions of the Key Word Concept Sheets, to be distributed to each student. They are used in an Introductory Lesson. Phenome Segmentation Sheets; Handwriting, Dictation, or Spelling paper, Concept Mastery Fluency Drills, and Assessments are also contained in the Blackline Master. Phoneme Segmentation Sheets act as graphic organizers and handy surfaces for the segmentation activities that employ the chips and rectangles manipulatives. Concept Mastery Fluency Drills offer additional practice with a concept for students who need help developing fluency. Assessments determine a student's mastery of the concepts with pre- and posttests.
The S.P.I.R.E. scope and sequence is based on utility and frequency of use, spiraling concepts in order to bring students to full literacy. Concepts taught to Level 1 students include:
S.P.I.R.E. is a comprehensive, multisensory, systematic reading and language arts program designed for students with learning differences and struggling readers. It has been used throughout the country with great success by thousands of students who need a direct, systematic, sequential approach to reading. Based on Orton-Gillingham methodologies, S.P.I.R.E. incorporates the most recent research regarding best practices in reading and language arts instruction. Each level of the curriculum is systematically structured, ensuring that students experience continuous and visible success.
- Short vowels a, i, o, u, e: closed syllable, initial and medial positions
- Consonant digraphs sh, ch, th, wh: initial and medial positions
- Welded sounds ang, ing, ong, ung, ank, ink, onk, unk
S.P.I.R.E. addresses all skills recommended by the National Reading Panel. These skills include:
Phonological AwarenessPacing is reflective of student need; individual pacing will vary according to student need.
- Rhyme Providing and categorization
- Phoneme and syllable segmentation, deletion, and substitution
- Blending sounds, syllables, and words
- Explicit instruction in decoding and encoding skills
- Comprehensible, decodable text at every level
- Phonogram cards for sound/symbol relationships
- Key word concept sheets to reinforce correct phoneme production
- Fluency drills for the entire scope and sequence
- Decodable connected text for automaticity and fluency practice - more than any other program
- Daily oral reading
- Phrasing, pausing and inflection are modeled and practiced
- Literal and inferential thinking
- Visualization strategies
- Explicit vocabulary development
- Phonetically controlled vocabulary words with every lesson
- Vocabulary development to ensure text comprehension
Daily Lesson Sequence
- S.P.I.R.E. is most effective when used for 60 minutes each day
- Number of Reinforcement lessons needed will vary dependent on attainment of mastery
- Level 1-8 can be completed within 2-4 years (average progress is 2-3 levels/year)
The S.P.I.R.E. lesson plan incorporates multiple sensory modalities in the development of phonological awareness, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and handwriting. The sequence and timing was carefully developed and refined by the author over years of instruction to:
Step 1: Phonogram Cards (5 minutes)
- Reinforce memory and internalize skills via input from all sensory channels
- Avoid boredom for at-risk and struggling readers
- Prevent frustration and build success via steps that continually shift modalities to develop one skill
Students review all Phonogram Cards with name of the letter and its sound. New concepts are introduced using a Key Word Concept Sheet. Introduce or review word cards for high-frequency words.
Step 2: Phonological Awareness (5 minutes)
Students work on Rhyme Providing & Categorization; Sound Providing; Categorization & Identification; Blending; Segmentation: Counting/Deletion/Substitution. Wide variety of activities are designed to insure student interest and develop student's ability to hold sounds in their minds.
Step 3: Word Building (5 minutes)
Students build and manipulate words with their Small Letter Sets.
Step 4: Decoding/Sentence Reading (10 minutes)
Introductory Lesson: Students work on a word list and are taught to underline, link, box letter combinations or divide words. Reinforcement Lesson: Students read a list of words and five sentences. Vocabulary and comprehension are developed.
Step 5: Prereading (5 minutes)
A word from the reading selection is chosen for phoneme-grapheme analysis. The teacher activates prior knowledge and builds background.
Step 6: Reading (15 minutes)
Introductory Lesson: Students utilize a Word Find Sheet to identify and read new concept words. Reinforcement Lessons: Students read fiction and nonfiction selections, applying the newly introduced concept and reviewing previously learned concepts. Students predict outcomes, identify cause and effect, compare and contrast, draw conclusions and make judgments.
Step 7: Sound Dictation (2 minutes)
Ten sounds are dictated to students. Students repeat the sound, name the letter and then write it on paper, naming as they write. The students read back all ten sounds, naming the letters and giving the sounds.
Step 8: Prespelling (3 minutes)
The first word to be spelled in Step 9 is orally analyzed for its phoneme-grapheme relationships.
Step 9: Spelling (5 minutes)
Words are dictated to the students, who repeat the word, spell it in their palm (when necessary), and write the word, naming the letters as they write. After the word is written, students sound out the word and blend it. After all ten words are written, they read the words again, starting at the top.
Step 10: Sentence Dictation (5 minutes)
Sentences that include words with the new phoneme are dictated while dashes are made on the board. Students repeat the sentence as the teacher points to each dash. The students repeat the sentence again and make a dash on their paper for each word, then write the sentence, putting a word on each dash. Proofreading, corrections and read-alouds are incorporated in this step.
Click here to view the Program Overview.
Click here to view the Product Descriptions.
Click here to view the Scope and Sequence of S.P.I.R.E.
Click here to view the Research Basis for S.P.I.R.E.
Click here to see the S.P.I.R.E. 10 Step Lesson Overview.
Click here to view the Sarasota Herald-Tribune article: "SPIRE helps struggling readers climb to new heights".
Click here to read "Prevention of Reading Failure" by Sheila Clark-Edmands, the author of S.P.I.R.E.
Click here to read "The Importance of Automaticity and Fluency For Efficient Reading Comprehension" by Pamela E. Hook & Sandra D. Jones.
Click here to view the Level 1 Short e: Introductory Lesson.
About the Author
The author of S.P.I.R.E., Sheila Clark-Edmands, M.S. Ed., developed the S.P.I.R.E. program based on her extensive experience working with children with learning differences over the past 30 years. She has been a teacher, administrator, and educational consultant and has been featured in the Wall Street Journal. Sheila is an Orton-Gillingham Fellow and studied Alice Garside and Dr. Edwin Cole at Massachusetts General Hospital. Sheila is a dedicated educator and still works with children and teachers on a daily basis.
About the Company
Educators Publishing Service (EPS) is proud to provide researched-based reading intervention resources with truly differentiated solutions that serve children in special education programs and clinics, as well as children in today's diverse classrooms, summer school, and after-school programs.
Their proven, standards-based publications are designed to increase the reading and writing achievement level of all students. They provide strong support for the critical pillars of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension through the experience gained from over 50 years of providing quality tailored reading and language arts instruction for K-8 students of all ability levels.
EPS currently works with some of the industry's top reading experts and publish more than 800 titles. Their time-tested classics, as well as their new offerings, demonstrate their expertise and commitment to supporting you and your students. Their best-selling classics include Wordly Wise 3000™, Explode the Code, Touchphonics™, Primary Phonics and the popular Words I Use series from their Modern Learning Press imprint.